Bulgaria fact file

General information about Bulgaria

Location: Bulgaria is situated in Southeast Europe and occupies the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
Bulgaria boarders Romania /to the north/, the Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Serbia /to the west/, Black Sea to the east ,Greece /to the south/and Turkey /to the southwest/.

Territory - 111 000 sq.km.

Relief: Geographically Bulgaria features notable diversity with the landscape ranging from the Alpine snow-capped peaks in Rila, Pirin and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny Black Sea coast; from the typically continental Danubian Plain in the north to the strong Mediterranean climatic influence in the valleys of Macedonia and in the lowlands in the southernmost parts of Thrace.

The mountainous southwest of the country has two alpine ranges Rila and Pirin and further east stand the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains. The Rila range includes the highest peak of the Balkan Peninsula, Musala, at 2,925 metres (9,596 ft); the long range of the Balkan mountains runs west-east through the middle of the country, north of the famous Rose Valley. Hilly country and plains lie to the southeast, along the Black Sea coast, and along Bulgaria's main river, the Danube, to the north. Strandzha is the tallest mountain in the southeast. Few mountains and hills exist in the northeast region of Dobrudzha. The Balkan Peninsula derives its name from the Balkan or Stara planina mountain range running through the centre of Bulgaria and extends into eastern Serbia.

Climate: The climate in Bulgaria is temperate continental with clearly marked four seasons.
A mild Mediterranean influence is felt in the country's southern regions.
The average annual temperature is 10.5C.
The average January temperature is around OC.
Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 30C.

Population - 8,228,006. The population consists chiefly of Bulgarians. There is a substantial minority of Turks, and smaller groups of Gypsies and Macedonians.

Official language - Bulgarian;

English, German, French and Russian are spoken in the country's resorts and big cities. The alphabet in Bulgaria is the Cyrillic. Signs along international motorways, at the airports and in resorts are in Cyrillic and are also spelled in Roman letters.

Religion - 86.6% of the population is Eastern Orthodox, 13% are Muslims. The Bulgarian Church is autonomous and headed by a Patriarch.

State government - Bulgaria is an independent state and the form of government is of people's democracy. All citizens have equal rights as the law is concerned disregarding sex, nationality, race, religion, education, occupation, social and material status.

Capital of Bulgaria - Sofia (pop. about 1,200,000)
Other big cities are Plovdiv, Varna, Bourgas, Veliko Turnovo.

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Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet: The Cyrillic script is an alphabet developed in the 9th century in Bulgaria, and used in the Slavic national languages. The Cyrillic alphabet is also known as "azbuka", derived from the old names of the first two letters of most variant Cyrillic alphabets. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official alphabet of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek alphabets.

In Bulgaria all the road signs, names of streets, documents, etc, are written in Cyrillic, so it's a good idea to have a look at the table below, showing the letters of the Bulgarian alphabet and their pronounciation.

We have also found out an online English- Bulgarian phrase book, check there words and phrases which might be useful during your stay in Bulgaria.